Henry Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management

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      he Henry Fayol’s principles of management are given below:

      1. Division of work:

      Division of work or specialization alone can give maximum productivity and efficiency. Both technical and managerial activities can be performed in the best manner only through division of labour and specialization.

      2. Authority and Responsibility:

      The right to give order is called authority. The obligation to accomplish is called responsibility. Authority and Responsibility are the two sides of the management coin. They exist together. They are complementary and mutually interdependent.

      3. Discipline:

      The objectives, rules and regulations, the policies and procedures must be honoured by each member of an organization. There must be clear and fair agreement on the rules and objectives, on the policies and procedures. There must be penalties (punishment) for non-obedience or indiscipline. No organization can work smoothly without discipline – preferably voluntary discipline.

      4. Unity of Command:

      In order to avoid any possible confusion and conflict, each member of an organization must received orders and instructions only from one superior (boss).

      5. Unity of Direction:

      All members of an organization must work together to accomplish common objectives.

      6. Emphasis on Subordination of Personal Interest to General or Common Interest:

      This is also called principle of co-operation. Each shall work for all and all for each. General or common interest must be supreme in any joint enterprise.

      7. Remuneration:

      Fair pay with non-financial rewards can act as the best incentive or motivator for good performance. Exploitation of employees in any manner must be eliminated. Sound scheme of remuneration includes adequate financial and nonfinancial incentives.

      8. Centralization:

      There must be a good balance between centralization and decentralization of authority and power. Extreme centralization and decentralization must be avoided.

      9. Scalar Chain:

      The unity of command brings about a chain or hierarchy of command linking all members of the organization from the top to the bottom. Scalar denotes steps.

      10. Order:

      Fayol suggested that there is a place for everything. Order or system alone can create a sound organization and efficient management.

      11. Equity:

      An organization consists of a group of people involved in joint effort. Hence, equity (i.e., justice) must be there. Without equity, we cannot have sustained and adequate joint collaboration.

      12. Stability of Tenure:

      A person needs time to adjust himself with the new work and demonstrate efficiency in due course. Hence, employees and managers must have job security. Security of income and employment is a pre-requisite of sound organization and management.

      13. Esprit of Co-operation:

      Esprit de corps is the foundation of a sound organization. Union is strength. But unity demands co-operation. Pride, loyalty and sense of belonging are responsible for good performance.

      14. Initiative:

      Creative thinking and capacity to take initiative can give us sound managerial planning and execution of predetermined plans.

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